We condensed stem cell history for you.
In 1998, James Thompson isolated cells from the inner cell mass of early embryos, and developed the first embryonic stem cell lines. Ethical concerns over this type of embryonic stem cell research has been expressed in the following US legal regulations:
- In 1973, a moratorium was placed on government funding for hESC research.
- In 1988, a NIH panel voted 19 to 2 in favor of government funding.
- In 1990, Congress voted to override the moratorium on government funding of hESC research, which was vetoed by President George Bush.
- President Clinton lifted the ban, but changed his mind the following year after public outcry.
- Congress banned federal funding in 1995.
- In 1998, DHHS Secretary Sullivan extended the moratorium.
- In 2000, President Bill Clinton allowed funding of research on cells derived from aborted human fetuses, but not from embryonic cells.
- On August 9, 2001, President George W. Bush announced his decision to allow Federal funding of research only on existing hESC lines created prior to his announcement.
- In 2004, both houses of Congress asked President
- George W. Bush to review his policy on embryonic stem cell research. President George W. Bush released a statement reiterating his moral qualms about creating human embryos to destroy them, and refused to reverse the federal policy banning government funding of hESC research.
- On March 9, 2009, President Barack Obama issued Executive Order (EO) 13505 Removing Barriers to Responsible Scientific Research Involving Human Stem Cells.